Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
В данной статье категория «оппозиция» в терминологическом поле «хирургический инструментарий» немецкого языка рассматривается с точки зрения когнитивного подхода. Антонимы анализируются в соответствии с семантической и структурной классификацией, разработанной Л.А. Новиковым. Цель данной работы состоит в анализе и описании терминов исследуемого терминологического поля, в семантике которых есть указания на категорию «оппозиция». Материалом для исследования послужили сложные термины (774 термина) и терминологические словосочетания (524 термина) немецкого языка. Результаты анализа показали, что категория «оппозиция» характерна для изучаемого терминологического поля. Согласно семантической классификации в исследуемом терминологическом поле выявлены контрарные, комплементарные и векторные антонимы. По своей структуре антонимы терминологического поля «хирургический инструментарий» немецкого языка представлены сложными терминами и терминологическими словосочетаниями.

Ключевые слова:
медицинская терминология, медицинский термин, хирургический инструментарий, антонимы, противопоставление, оппозиция
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For many centuries scientists from different countries have been interested in the nature of human cognition, his intellect, as well as the relationship between cognition, thinking and language. In the late 90s of the 20th century, cognitive terminology studies arose in the framework of cognitive linguistics and general terminology. It was formed as an independent research area and nowadays it keeps developing as a part of cognitive linguistics. Language is regarded by cognitive terminology as a unique object for understanding mental processes occurring in a person’s head and determining his existence [1, с. 9]. V.F. Novodranova says that the study of language from the point of view of cognitive approach makes it possible to come closer to understanding the cognitive mechanisms of nomination, formation of the meaning of a term, and making connection between two levels – linguistic and conceptual [2, с. 101]. It is also noted that thanks to the new approach, already known linguistic phenomena are studied more deeply and comprehensively [2, 3, 4, 5].

In cognitive terminology, the term is a “living” lexical unit with three “ages”: “the period of birth, the period of maturity and the period of dying” [6, с. 352]. In addition, the term has different functions; it is created to designate special concepts ... cognitively and discursively significant only in a special semiotic space and has a conventional use” [7].

Terminological nomination is a complex cognitive process. It includes transmission and receiving of encoded linguistic information. A number of cognitive mechanisms are involved in this process: analogy, opposition, conceptual compression, detailing and others. Opposition is one of the basic cognitive mechanisms involved in the nomination process. Its essence is to highlight the opposite concepts within one terminological field. At the semantic level opposition is expressed by antonyms.

We consider it necessary to determine the difference in the meaning of the word “opposition” when used in everyday discourse and terminology. Opposition or contradistinction in the defining dictionary of S.I. Ozhegov has the following meaning: an object or phenomenon completely different with what is being compared [8, с. 614]. In antonymy, opposition is formed by opposite but not contradictory cognitive features within one concept [9, с. 8]. In our work we use the definition for antonymy given by L.A. Novikov. Antonymy is “a semantic relationship of opposite meanings expressed by formally different words that implement the function of opposition and other related functions” within one terminological field [10, с. 247]. For example: elastische Klemme (flexible clamp) – steife / harte Klemme (stiff forceps).

Purpose, methods and materials of the study

Nowadays medical and surgical terminology of the German language is described in a number of works, e.g., stomatological terminology (Y.V. Plotskaya, 2020), internationalism in German names of surgical instrument (M.V. Shuyupova, Y.V. Plotskay, 2020), antonymy in medical terminology (Jerome Baghana, S.M. Velichkova 2012,), metaphoric terms (S.L. Mishlanova, 2019) and others. But there is not description of antonymy in the terminological field (TF) “surgical instruments” of the German language.

The purpose of the article is to consider the types of the terms in the TF “surgical instruments” of the German language in semantics of which the category “opposition” is indicated. TF “surgical instruments” was analyzed by means of definitional, conceptual and semantic types of analysis. The material for the study consists of compound terms (774 terms) and terminological word-combinations (524 terms) which belong to the studied TF.

The relevance of research

The relevance of the study can be determined by the following factors: at present, there is no classification of antonymic terms from the TF “surgical instruments” of the German language. The functions of the antonymic terms of this TF have not been described as yet. In the article we examined the antonymic terms found in medical papers, dictionaries, patents. These terms were analyzed on the basis of semantic and structural classification.

Scientific novelty

The novelty of the study is provided by the use of cognitive approach to the study of the category “opposition” in the TF “surgical instruments” of the German language.


The formation of the TF “surgical instruments” in the German language is associated with the origin of surgery. The first steps of formation of surgery as a science can be found at the early stages of the existence of human society. On the one hand, surgery is the most ancient field of medicine. As soon as a man began to hunt and work he needed medical knowledge to remove foreign elements from his body, to cure wounds and diseases and to stop bleeding. On the other hand, surgery will always be a young science, because its development will not stop. Nowadays we see the intensive development of medicine in general and surgery in particular. Because a term is “a cognitive structure that accumulates special knowledge necessary in the process of scientific communication and professional scientific activity” we have a number of new terms [15, с. 674].

The analysis of the works of some prominent linguists (E.V. Bekisheva, 2007; N.N. Boldyrev, 2006; O.Ya. Ivanova, 2004; E.S. Kubryakova, 2004; V.F. Novodranova, 1997; Е.A. Sloeva, 2007) demonstrated that an individual in the process of analysis and generalization distributes the obtained knowledge into groups, i.e., he categorizes his knowledge. This is caused by the necessity to group the objects that we comprehend as similar or dissimilar in some way to the best example of an object, which we know or according to the opposite poles of a mental scale.

In the works on medical terminology, it is proved that the category of space is the main category of medical terminology, because it has “pragmatic significance, which is explained by the need to accurately indicate the specific shape and size, location and interposition of organs, tissues and body systems” [19, c. 84].

In the TF “surgical instruments”, the category space is a categorizing and classifying one, which is verified by the need to indicate 1) the place of a surgical handle (die Herzpunktionsnadel – needle for cardiocentesis), 2) the place of tissue extraction for its further diagnosis (die Nadel für bronchiale Biopsie needle for bronchial biopsy), 3) the place for an implant (das Herzimplantat heart implant).

The designation of spatial relations in the TF “surgical instruments” of the German language is of functional significance. The terms of the studied TF mark such characteristics as form, size, quality, time or duration of use of a surgical instrument, function, gender of a patient. These characteristics or categories are objectified by antonyms from the studied TF:

1) location in space (innere Tracheostomiekanüle (internal cannula of the tracheostomy tube) – äußere Tracheostomiekanüle (external cannula of the tracheostomy tube)),

2) size (kleine Nadel (small needle) – große Nadel (large needle)),

3) quality (mehrteilige Spritze (non-disposable syringe) – die Ganzspritze / die Spritze aus einem Stück (disposable / one piace syringe)),

4) time or duration of use of a surgical instrument (der Verweilkatheter (permanent / indwelling catheter) – zeitweiliger Katheter (non-indwelling / temporary catheter)),

5) form (der Dreiflanschnagel ohne Kanal (uncannulated three-flange nail) – der Dreiflanschnagel mit dem Achsenkanal (cannulated three-flange nail)),

6) function (das Instrument für Gewebsverbindung (instrument for suturing tissue) - das Instrument für Gewebstennung (instrument for separating tissue)),

7) gender characteristics of a patient (der Frauenurethralkatheter (female urethral catheter) – der Männerurethralkatheter (male urethral catheter)).

Semantic and structural groups of antonyms

There were identified 41 antonymic lines (87 terms) in the TF “surgical instruments” of the German language. The frequency of antonymic terms is 5.7% (1524 terms were studied). The analysis of quantitative structure of the antonymic lines demonstrated that the first place belongs to two-member lines (37 lines – 90%). It should be noted that in the studied TF there are three-member (3 lines – 7.5%) and four-member (1 lines – 2.5%) antonymic lines. For example, kleines Amputationsmesser (small amputating knife) – mittleres Amputationsmesser (amputating knife of middle size) – großes Amputationsmesser (large amputating knife); atraumatische Nadel (atraumatic / noninjuring needle) – stechende Nadel (pricking needle) – durchstechende Nadel (piercing needle) – schneidende Nadel (cutting / knife needle).

In the article the antonyms of the TF “surgical instruments” are analyzed using semantic and structural classification developed by L.A. Novikov [10].

In the TF “surgical instruments” of the German language, three classes of semantically opposite terms were distinguished:

1) Contrary antonyms represent qualitative opposition, which contains a middle component: gebogene chirurgische Nadel (surgeon's curved needle) > halbgebogene chirurgische Nadel (surgeon's half-curved needle) < gerade chirurgische Nadel (surgeon's straight needle).

2) Complementary antonyms are characterized by the fact that there is no middle component between the opposite lexical units: der Dauerkatheter / der Verweilkatheter (permanent / indwelling catheter) zeitweiliger Katheter / der Zeitweilkatheter (non-indwelling / temporary catheter).

3) Vector antonyms are based on the opposition of multidirectional actions, movements, features: das Instrument für Gewebsverbindung (instrument for suturing tissue) – das Instrument für Gewebstrennung (instrument for parting / dividing / separating tissue); die Darmklemme / die Darmquetsche anlegen (to apply an intestinal clamp/constrictor) – die Darmklemme / die Darmquetsche abnehmen (to remove an intestinal clamp/ constrictor).

Each of these three types of antonyms demonstrates a common feature – an extreme negation is indicated in the definition of one of the antonymic terms.

In his structural classification, L.A. Novikov divided antonyms into two groups: 1) terms of the same root and 2) terms of different roots. The mechanism of oppositeness of antonyms of the same root is expressed through the use of:

1) prefixes with negative semantics (2 two-member antonymic lines): resorbierbarer Faden (resolved thread) – unresorbierbarer Faden (unresolved thread);

2) a component of compound adjectives with the semantics of incompleteness, insufficiency (1 two-member antonymic line): gebogene chirurgische Nadel (surgeon's curved needle) – halbgebogene chirurgische Nadel (surgeon's half-curved needle).

Among the antonyms of different roots the following types of lexical antonyms were identified:

1) compound terms (5 two-member antonymic lines): der Frauenurethralkatheter (female urethral catheter) – der Männerurethralkatheter (male urethral catheter), der Flachmeißel (flat bone chisel) – der Hohlmeißel (grooved bone gouge);

2) terminological word-combinations (36 two-member antonymic lines): direkte Harnröhrenbougie für Frauen (female straight urethral bougie) – gebeugte Harnröhrenbougie für Männer (male curved urethral bougie), stumpfer chirurgischer Hacken (blunt ponget surgical retractor) – scharfer chirurgischer Hacken (sharp ponget surgical retractor).

The most productive structural group is the group of antonyms with different roots, in which the mechanism of opposition is expressed through the use of lexical antonyms as a part of terminological word-combinations (90% of the total number of the analyzed antonyms). The productivity of this type, in our opinion, is explained by the fact that oppositions of this type are easy both to understand and to form. For surgeons it is more practical to use the terms with different roots. For example, in the antonymic line “unscharfes / scharfes Instrument (blunt / sharp instrument)” it is better to choose das Stumpfinstrument (blunt instrument) than unscharfes Instrument (sharp instrument) because when surgeons face a critical situation in the operating room and when time counts by seconds, it is important to make the right decision and use the appropriate surgical instrument. Moreover, an operating surgeon must tell the nurse which instrument he needs. It should be done very quickly and there is no time to repeat this information again and again.

It should be noted that for antonymic terms, the orienting function is of primary importance. They convey not only information about the function, form, size, quality of the instrument, but also about its use. For example, elastische (non-crushing intestinal clamp) and harte Darmklemme (stiff intestinal clamp). All parts of clamping instruments are made of steel, and “elasticity” (the degree and nature of compression) when it is used is achieved not due to softer materials, but due to the length of the jaw and the number of interlocking teeth on its surface. Non-crushing intestinal clamp (elastische Darmklemme) is a metal fixation clamp used to capture and hold the intestines with minimal trauma due to the specific pressure on the tissue not more than 2-3 kgf. A stiff intestinal clamp (harte Darmklemme) is designed to clamp the intestinal walls; it has spear-shaped jaws with an internal cutout of the same shape.


The analysis of the terms of the TF “surgical instruments” in the German language revealed the terms in the semantics of which the category “opposition” is indicated. This confirms the opinion of V.M. Leichik and E.A. Nikulina about the relevance of this category in terminology [21, с. 35].

According to the semantic classification the studied TF is characterized by contrasting, complementary and vector antonyms. As to their structure the antonyms of the TF “surgical instruments” in the German language are represented by compound terms and terminological word-combinations where opposition is expressed mainly by an adjective.

As it was noted above, the oppositeness mechanism is one of the basic cognitive mechanisms involved in the nomination process. Thus, we can conclude that antonyms exist in any language, any terminological system, any terminological field and serve as linguistic means of representing mental oppositions in the minds of people, making it possible to obtain a more complete understanding of the object.

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